The problems of menopause -1

What is menopause?
What are the symptoms of menopause?

What is osteoporosis?
Types of osteoporosis
What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?
How to prevent the problems of osteoporosis?
What are the consequences of osteoporosis?
What are the risk factors for developing osteoporosis?

Raloxifene (Selective estrogen receptor modulators)

What is menopause?
Menopause is the opposite of the
Menarche'Menarche: is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding in the females of human beings.'
It is also called the "change of life".
Menopause is defined as the time when there has been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. It is the end of fertility, the end of the childbearing years. (A woman may still, however, be able to become pregnant unless 12 consecutive months have passed without a period.)
A woman can usually tell if she is approaching menopause because her menstrual periods starts changing. The medical terms used to describe this time are "perimenopause" and the "menopause transition".
Natural menopause occurs when the ovaries naturally begin decreasing their production of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
The timing of natural menopause is variable. In the western world the average age is now 51. Natural menopause can, however, be in a woman's 30s or 60s.
Factors influencing the time of menopause include:
  • Heredity (genetics)
  • Cigarette smoking; Smokers (andformer smokers) reach menopause an average of 2 years before women who have never smoked.

There is no relation between the time of a woman's first period and her age at menopause. The age at menopause is not influenced by a woman's race, height, number of children or use of oral contraceptives.

Symptoms of menopause:
Menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process of transition. This transition period (known as perimenopause) is different for each woman.
Scientists are still trying to identify all the factors that initiate and influence this transition. Women in perimenopause transition typically experience abnormal vaginal bleeding such as erratic periods or abnormal bleeding patterns and sudden hot blushing. Eventually a woman's periods will completely stop as she completes this transition into menopause.

The symptoms of the menopause transition can be divided into early and late onset symptoms:


Irregular vaginal bleeding
Hot flashes
Night sweats


Vaginal dryness

Changes associated with menopause include

Night sweats
Mood swings
Vaginal dryness
Fluctuations in sexual desire (libido)
Trouble sleeping
Fatigue (probably from the loss of sleep)


Conditions that have not been proved due to the menopause include
Palpitations of the heart


  • Osteoporosis
  • It is a metabolic bone disease in which the amount of bone tissue is reduced sufficiently to increase the likelihood of fracture, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to:
    • Curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse
    • Fractures of the vertebrae
    • Femur (hip) and wrist are the most common osteoporotic fractures, but other bones such as the ribs, upper arm, and pelvis may also fracture.
      That features loss of the normal density of bone and fragile bone.

Osteoporosis leads to literally abnormally porous bone that is more compressible like a sponge, than dense like a brick.
Although low bone mass is the major factor in osteoporotic fractures, there may also be qualitative and architectural changes in bone with aging that lead to increased fragility.

Types of osteoporosis:
Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary.
Primary osteoporosis:
  • Osteoporosis chart
  • Occurs independently of other causes
    • Primary osteoporosis occurring in children is called "juvenile osteoporosis"
    • That occurring in premenopausal women and middle-aged or young men is known as" idiopathic osteoporosis"
The secondary osteoporosis:
Result from identifiable causes:
  • Exogenous cortisone administration
  • Cushing’s disease'Cushing’s disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH). The pituitary gland is an organ of the endocrine system'

  • Hyperparathyroidism'Hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH).'

  • Hyperthyroidism'Hyperthyroidism is overactivity of the thyroid glands resulting in excess production of thyroid hormone (TH).'

  • Hypogonadism'Hypogonadism is a medical term for a defect of the reproductive system that results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes).'

  • Multiple myeloma'Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cell, is an incurable but treatable disease.'

  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Alcoholism
  • Anorexia nervosa'Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight.'

  • Various gastrointestinal disorders.

Osteoporosis, which is found in older persons, can be classified as postmenopausal (type I) or involutional osteoporosis(type II).