A Step Ahead Towards
Better Health
Sedovesta and the problems of menopause

What is menopause?
Menopause is the opposite of the menarche. It is also called the "change of life".
Menopause is defined as the time when there has been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. It is the end of fertility, the end of the childbearing years. (A woman may still, however, be able to become pregnant unless 12 consecutive months have passed without a period.)
A woman can usually tell if she is approaching menopause because her menstrual periods starts changing. The medical terms used to describe this time are "perimenopause" and the "menopause transition".
Natural menopause occurs when the ovaries naturally begin decreasing their production of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
The timing of natural menopause is variable. In the western world the average age is now 51. Natural menopause can, however, be in a woman's 30s or 60s.

Factors influencing the time of menopause include:
Heredity (genetics)
Cigarette smoking; Smokers (andformer smokers) reach menopause an average of 2 years before women who have never smoked.

There is no relation between the time of a woman's first period and her age at menopause. The age at menopause is not influenced by a woman's race, height, number of children or use of oral contraceptives.

Symptoms of menopause:
Menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process of transition. This transition period (known as perimenopause) is different for each woman.
Scientists are still trying to identify all the factors that initiate and influence this transition. Women in perimenopause transition typically experience abnormal vaginal bleeding such as erratic periods or abnormal bleeding patterns and sudden hot blushing. Eventually a woman's periods will completely stop as she completes this transition into menopause.

The symptoms of the menopause transition can be divided into early and late onset symptoms:
Early symptoms:
Irregular vaginal bleeding
Hot flashes
Night sweats

Late symptoms:
Vaginal dryness

Changes associated with menopause include:
Night sweats
Mood swings
Vaginal dryness
Fluctuations in sexual desire (libido)
Trouble sleeping
Fatigue (probably from the loss of sleep)

Conditions that have not been proved due to the menopause include:
Palpitations of the heart

Osteoporosis It is a metabolic bone disease in which the amount of bone tissue is reduced sufficiently to increase the likelihood of fracture, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to:

Curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse
Fractures of the vertebrae
Femur (hip) and wrist are the most common osteoporotic fractures, but other bones such as the ribs, upper arm, and pelvis may also fracture.
That features loss of the normal density of bone and fragile bone.

Osteoporosis leads to literally abnormally porous bone that is more compressible like a sponge, than dense like a brick.

Although low bone mass is the major factor in osteoporotic fractures, there may also be qualitative and architectural changes in bone with aging that lead to increased fragility.

Types of osteoporosis:
Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary.
Osteoporosis chart
Primary osteoporosis:
Occurs independently of other causes
Primary osteoporosis occurring in children is called "juvenile osteoporosis"
That occurring in premenopausal women and middle-aged or young men is known as" idiopathic osteoporosis"

The secondary osteoporosis:
Result from identifiable causes:
Exogenous cortisone administration
Cushing's disease
Multiple myeloma
Prolonged immobilization
Anorexia nervosa
Various gastrointestinal disorders.

Osteoporosis, which is found in older persons, can be classified as postmenopausal (type I) or involutional  osteoporosis(type II).


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