Vitamin E -2

Vitamin E from food or supplements?
Vitamin E does not manufactured in our bodies. We have to get our Vitamin E either from our food or from supplements e.g. E1000 SEDICO ; Toco capsules.
Scientific studies also tell us that we need to take much higher levels of Vitamin E than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) to get its full benefits. Because Vitamin E is fat-soluble, it is generally found in fat-rich foods.
But many scientists believe it is difficult for an individual to consume more than 15 mg/day of alpha-tocopherol from food alone, without also increasing fat intake above recommended levels.
8 different compounds, 4 tocopherol and 4 tocotrienols make up the vitamin E family. Our food contains all eight compounds. Not so for most Vitamin E supplements. Most contain only alpha-tocopherol. The best vitamin E products contain all 8 members of the vitamin E family - tocopherols plus tocotrienols - in their NATURAL form.

What is the recommended intake for vitamin E?
Vitamin E chemical structure Vitamin E daily intake Recommendations for vitamin E are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes developed by the Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intake for healthy people.In the table below, RDAs for vitamin E are listed as Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE) to account for the different biological activities of the various forms of vitamin E. it also lists RDAs for vitamin E in International Units (IU) because food and some supplement labels list vitamin E content in There is insufficient scientific data on vitamin E to establish an RDA for infants. An Adequate Intake (AI) has been established that is based on the amount of vitamin E consumed by healthy infants who are fed breast milk. Table 2 lists the adequate intakes for vitamin E for infants in mg ATE and IU (1 mg ATE vitamin E = 1.5 IU)

Who is at risk for vitamin E deficiency?
Vitamin E deficiency is rare in humans. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur.

  • Persons who cannot absorb dietary fat due to an inability to secrete bile or with rare disorders of fat metabolism are at risk of vitamin E deficiency.
  • Individuals with rare genetic abnormalities in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein are at risk of vitamin E deficiency.
  • Premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3 pounds, 4 ounces) are at risk of vitamin E deficiency and in newborn infants (due usually to feeding with formula milk that is low in vitamin E). This latter condition is generally associated with hemolytic anemia in the newborn.
  • During pregnancy (due to low dietary intake).
  • Blood levels of Vitamin E may also be decreased with zinc deficiency. Vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems associated with nerve degeneration in hands and feet .These symptoms are also associated with other medical conditions. A physician can determine if they are the result of a vitamin E deficiency or are from another cause.

Who may need extra vitamin E to prevent a deficiency?
Individuals who cannot absorb fat require a Vitamin E supplement because some dietary fat is needed for the absorption of Vitamin E from the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal disorders that often result in malabsorption of vitamin E and may require Vitamin E supplementation include:

  • Crohn's Disease:
    Is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects the small intestines. People with Crohn's disease often experience diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption.

  • Cystic Fibrosis:
    Is an inherited disease that effects the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and liver. Cystic fibrosis can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, especially of fat soluble vitamins including vitamin E.
    People who cannot absorb fat often pass greasy stools or have chronic diarrhea. People with an inability to secrete bile, a substance that helps fat digestion, may need a special water-soluble form of vitamin E.

  • Abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome):
    An inherited disorder characterized by the absence of low-density lipoproteins in the plasma, the presence of
    acanthocytes'Acanthocytes are red cells that have a spherical core and a spiculated appearance. A typical acanthocyte lacks central pallor and has from 3 to 12 (spikes) or (knobs). They can be seen in advanced liver disease '
    in the blood, retinal pigmentary degeneration, malabsorption of fats, and neuromuscular abnormalities.
    This disorder results in poor absorption of dietary fat and vitamin E. The vitamin E deficiency associated with this disease causes problems such as poor transmission of nerve impulses, muscle weakness, and degeneration of the retina that can cause blindness. Individuals with abetalipoproteinemia may be prescribed special vitamin E supplements by a physician to treat this disorder.

  • Ataxia and vitamin E deficiency (AVED):
    Is a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impaired ability to coordinate voluntary movements (ataxia) and disease of the peripheral nervous system (peripheral neuropathy).
    This disease is caused by a genetic defect in a liver protein that is responsible for maintaining normal alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the blood. These individuals have such severe vitamin E deficiency that without supplements they are unable to walk (ataxia).

  • Necrotizing enterocolitits:
    A condition sometimes seen in very low birth weight infants that is characterized by inflammation of the lining of the intestines, may lead to a vitamin E deficiency. Very low birth weight infants may be deficient in vitamin E, these infants are usually under the care of a neonatologist, a pediatrician specializing in the care of newborns who evaluates and treats the exact nutritional needs of premature infants.

What are some current issues and controversies about vitamin E?
Vitamin E and skin :
Abstract The generation of free oxygen radicals is believed to play an important pathogenic role in the development of various disorders. More than other tissues, the skin is exposed to numerous environmental chemical and physical agents such as ultraviolet light causing oxidative stress. In the skin this results in several short- and long-term adverse effects such as erythematic, edema, skin thickening, wrinkling, and an increased incidence of skin cancer or precursor lesions.
However, accelerated cuteneous aging under the influence of ultraviolet light, usually termed photo-aging, is only one of the harmful effects of continual oxygen radical production in the skin.
Others include cuteneous inflammation, auto-immunological processes, keratinization disturbances, and vasculitis.
Vitamin E is the major naturally occurring lipid-soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant protecting skin from the adverse effects of oxidative stress including photo aging.
Its chemistry and its physiological function as a major antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent, in particular with respect to its photo protective, antiphotoaging properties, are described by summarizing animal studies, in vivo tests on human skin and biochemical in vitro investigations. The possible therapeutic use in different cutaneous disorders, and pharmacological and toxicological aspects are discussed. Many studies document that vitamin E occupies a central position as a highly efficient antioxidant, thereby providing possibilities to decrease the frequency and severity of pathological events in the skin. For this purpose increased efforts in developing appropriate systemic and local pharmacological preparations of vitamin E are required.

The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars:
Anecdotal reports claim that vitamin E speeds wound healing and improves the cosmetic outcome of burns and other wounds.
This study shows that there is no benefit to the cosmetic outcome of scars by applying vitamin E after skin surgery and that the application of topical vitamin E may actually be detrimental to the cosmetic appearance of a scar. In 90% of the cases in this study, topical vitamin E either had no effect on, or actually worsened, the cosmetic appearance of scars. Of the patients studied, 33% developed a contact dermatitis to the vitamin E.