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It performs a range of complex and important functions that affect all body systems, some of the specific functions of the liver include:

Terms definition:
Gluconeogenesis : The formation of glucose (blood sugar) from certain amino acids, lactate or glycerol; that is necessary to support the stable concentration of glucose in the blood.
Glycogenolysis : The formation of glucose from glycogen - to mobilize glucose for the body from intrahepatic resource.
Glycogenesis: The formation of glycogen from glucose - to make resource of glucose for future requirement.

Liver Diseases:
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver.

The disease can be caused by:
Infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C) or parasites, bacteria;
Excess accumulation of fat (triglycerides) in liver cells - Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) - caused by obesity and abnormal lipid metabolism, may result in Steatohepatitis
Liver damage from alcohol, drugs, or poisonous mushrooms
Immune cells in the body may attack the liver and cause autoimmune hepatitis
Some inherited genetic liver disorders result in hepatitis
An overdose of acetaminophen, which is rare but mortal. Besides acetaminophen (other names: Tylenol, paracetamol) some other medications can cause damage and inflammation of the liver.
Hepatitis may start and resolve quickly (acute hepatitis), or cause long-term disease for decades (chronic hepatitis). In some instances, progressive liver damage, liver failure, or even liver cancer may (hepatocellular carcinoma) result.

The severity of hepatitis depends on many factors, including the cause of the liver damage and any underlying illnesses you have. Hepatitis A, for example, is generally transient, not leading to chronic liver problems.

The symptoms of hepatitis may include some or all of the following (depends on a stage of hepatitis):

Early menopause Loss of appetite
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes) Abdominal pain or distention
Weight loss General itching
Chronic fatigue Low grade fever
Breast development in males Nausea and vomiting
Dark urine and pale or clay-colored stools

Many people with hepatitis B or C do not have symptoms when first infected and can still develop liver failure later (sometimes decades later).
Chronic hepatitis very often results in liver failure (cirrhosis) or liver cancer.

Liver fibrosis:
"Fibrosis is a scarring process of body organs and hepatic fibrosis is scarring of the liver."
"Fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen proteins in abnormal ratio."
In other words" liver fibrosis is associated with major alterations in both the quantity and composition of extracellular matrix proteins."

In advanced stages, the liver contains approximately 6 times more extracellular matrix proteins than normal and its end-stage disease cirrhosis are major world health problems arising from chronic injury of the liver by a variety of factors including viruses, the metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disease, alcohol and drug abuse, and inherited (genetic) disorders of metabolism.

Cirrhosis is the final common pathway through which nearly all chronic diseases of the liver produce morbidity and mortality.

Fibrosis process occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases.
It is the consequence of chronic liver injury of any etiology.
Hepatic fibrosis is the result of the wound-healing response of the liver to repeated injury.

The liver has an incredible ability to heal itself, but it can only heal itself if nothing is damaging it time and again. After an acute liver injury (e.g., acute viral hepatitis), liver cells regenerate and replace the damaged and dead cells. This process is associated with an inflammatory response and a limited deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. If the hepatic injury persists, then eventually the liver regeneration response becomes wrong, pathologically activated hepatic stellate cells-cells that encircle the sinusoids and in healthy condition are quiescent and store vitamin A- become the main source of scar-like matrix composed of cross-linked collagen. As fibrotic liver diseases advance, disease progression from collagen bands to bridging fibrosis and frank cirrhosis occurs.
The onset of liver fibrosis is usually insidious and inconspicuous, and most of the related morbidity and mortality occur after the development of advanced liver fibrosis, i.e. cirrhosis. In the majority of patients, progression to cirrhosis occurs after an interval of 10 to 20 years. Major clinical complications of cirrhosis include ascites, renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy, and variceal bleeding.

Historically, treatments for hepatic fibrosis have been directed against specific causes of chronic liver injury, and include for example:
Corticosteroids for autoimmune hepatitis
Interferon for hepatitis B and C
Iron depletion for haemochromatosis.
Once treatments become ineffective, a liver transplant has been considered until the present.
Transplantation of cultured liver cells: In most circumstances, liver cell infusion along with a proper adjuvant therapy (according to individual characteristics of patient's clinical course) reduces and reverse the harmful affects of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and can prevent the need for a liver transplant. Transplanted cells stop activated hepatic stellate cells, stop their injurious fibrotic activity and reverse them into quiescent stage.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called malignant hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either a viral hepatitide infection (Hepatitis B or C) or cirrhosis (alcoholism being the most common cause of hepatic cirrhosis).
In countries where hepatitis is not endemic, most malignant cancers in the liver are not primary HCC but metastasis (spread) of cancer from elsewhere in the body, e.g., the colon.
Treatment options of HCC and prognosis are dependent on many factors but especially on tumor size and staging.
Tumor grade is also important. High-grade tumors will have a poor prognosis, while low-grade tumors may go unnoticed for many years, as is the case in many other organs, such as the breast, where a ductal carcinoma in situ (or a lobular carcinoma in situ) may be present without any clinical signs and without correlate on routine imaging tests, although in some occasions it may be detected on more specialized imaging studies like MR mammography.

The usual outcome is poor, because only 10 - 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas can be removed completely using surgery. If the cancer cannot be completely removed, the disease is usually deadly within 3 to 6 months. This is partially due to late presentation with large tumours, but also the lack of medical expertise and facilities.
A new receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib has been shown in a Spanish phase III clinical trial to add two months to the lifespan of late stage HCC patients with well preserved liver function.

Signs and symptoms
HCC may present with jaundice, bloating from ascites, easy bruising from blood clotting abnormalities[citation needed] or as loss of appetite, unintentional weight loss, abdominal pain, nausea, emesis, or fatigue.
Fever ,Enlarged spleen ,Gastrointestinal bleeding Asymptomatic in early stages ,Right upper abdominal pain ,Right upper abdominal tenderness ,Right upper abdominal lump,Ascites,Muscle wasting,Enlarged liver,Tiredness,Impaired liver functionIncreased blood alkaline phosphatase level,Increased blood alpha-fetoprotein level,Vomiting,Itchy skin,Anemia,Pruritus,Splenomegaly,Variceal bleeding,Cachexia,Increasing abdominal girth (portal vein occlusion by thrombus with rapid development of ascites),Hepatic encephalopathy,Right upper quadrant pain.


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