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Nausea & Vomiting    

NAusea & Vomiting

What is meant by nausea?
Nausea is the sensation discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit
Nausea is not an illness; it is a symptom & is often indicative of an underlying condition elsewhere in the body.

What is meant by Vomiting?
Is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

What are vomiting complications?
Aspiration:
Vomiting can be very dangerous if the gastric content gets into the respiratory tract
the individual may choke and asphyxiate or suffer an aspiration pneumonia

Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance:
Prolonged and excessive vomiting will deplete the body of water May alter the electrolyte status

What are the causes of vomiting?
Causes in the digestive tract:
Gastritis (inflammation of the gastric wall, usually by viruses)
Pyloric stenosis (in babies - this typically causes a very forceful "projectile vomiting"
Bowel obstruction
Milk allergy In children, it can be caused by an allergic reaction to cow's milk proteins
 
Causes in the brain:
Concussion, Cerebral hemorrhage
Brain tumors, which can cause the chemo receptors to malfunction
Benign intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus
Metabolic disturbances (these may irritate both the stomach and the parts of the brain that coordinate vomiting

Infections elsewhere in the body can also cause vomiting.
Other classic situations are kids with pneumonia, ear infections, urinary tract infections, hepatitis, meningitis, or appendicitis.
Children with inborn errors of metabolism, such as PKU or galactosemia, will start vomiting at an early age.

How to treat nausea and vomiting?
An anti-emetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Anti-emetics act by inhibiting the receptor sites associated with emesis
Example: Domperidone 10 mg tab.

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