What is meant by dehydration?
Dehydration it is a condition in which the body contains an
insufficient volume of water for normal
What are the causes of dehydration in children?
Dehydration is most often caused by:
► Viral infection:
that causes fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and a
decreased ability to drink or eat e.g.
rotavirus, Norwalk virus
Sometimes sores in a child's mouth (caused
by a virus) make it painful to eat or drink,
which helps to cause or worsen
► More serious bacterial infections: may make a
child less likely to eat and may cause
vomiting and diarrhea.
Common bacterial infections include
Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter,
and Clostridium difficile.
► Parasitic infections:
cause the condition known as giardiasis,
which can lead to diarrhea and fluid
► Increased sweating from a very hot
environment can cause dehydration.
► Excessive urination caused by unrecognized
or poorly treated diabetes mellitus (not
taking insulin) or diabetes insipid us
What are the symptoms of dehydration?
Symptoms of dehydration:
► Sunken eyes & Sunken soft spot on the front
of the head in babies
► Decreased frequency of urination or dry
diapers & No tears when the child cries
► Dry or sticky mouth or tongue Lethargy (less
than normal activity)
► Irritability (more crying, fussiness with
How to treat dehydration?
► The main target is fluid replacement by
giving child plenty of fluid
► Suitable fluid replacement for children
younger than two years is done by product
designed to replace fluids, sugar and
electrolytes (dissolved minerals such as
sodium, potassium, and chloride). (Example:
► Children older than two years may be given
flat soda or soup.
when child is vomiting it may seem that your
child is vomiting all that is given, usually
an adequate amount of fluid is kept
► After 4 hours from vomiting: bananas, rice,
apples, toast, and other simple starches,
such as noodles or potatoes) may be
in children who are weaned from formula or
breast milk. after one to two days start by
normal food gradually.
► For breast feeding start by 1/2 the amount