How Human Insulin is Produced
Demo Flash Step by Step Insulin Production
DNA1 1. Isolate The Insulin Gene
The gene for producing HUMAN insulin protein is isolated. The gene is part of the DNA in a human chromosome. The gene can be isolated and then copied so that many insulin genes are available to work with
DNA2 2. Prepare Target DNA
In 1973, two scientists named Boyer and Cohen developed a way to take DNA from one organism and put it in the DNA of bacterium - using the E.Coli bacteria as a FACTORY. This process is called recombinant DNA technology. First, a circular piece of DNA called a plasmid is removed from a bacterial cell. Special proteins are used to cut the plasmid ring open.
DNA3 3. Insert DNA into Plasmid
With the plasmid ring open, the gene for insulin is inserted into the plasmid ring and the ring is closed - by another special enzyme-. The human insulin gene is now recombined with the bacterial DNA plasmid.
DNA4 4. Insert Plasmid back into cell
The bacterial DNA now contains the human insulin gene and is inserted into a bacteria. Scientists use very small needle syringes to move the recombined plasmid through the bacterial cell membrane.
DNA5 5. Plasmid multiply
Many plasmids with the insulin gene are inserted into many bacterial cells. The cells need nutrients in order to grow, divide, and live. While they live, the bacterial cell processes turn on the gene for human insulin and the insulin is produced in the cell. When the bacterial cells reproduce by dividing, the human insulin gene is also reproduced in the newly created cells.
DNA6 6. Target Cells Reproduce
Human insulin protein molecules produced by bacteria are gathered and purified. The process of purifying and producing cow and pig insulin has been greatly reduced or eliminated.
DNA7 7. Cells Produce Proteins
Millions of people with diabetes now take human insulin produced by bacteria or yeast (biosynthetic insulin) that is genetically compatible with their bodies, just like the perfect insulin produced naturally in your body.