Urokinase is a
thrombolytic agent obtained from human neonatal kidney cells grown in tissue
culture. The principle active ingredient of
the low molecular weight form of urokinase, and consists of an A chain of 2,000
Daltons linked by a sulfhydryl bond to a B chain of 30,400 Daltons.
Urokinase is an
enzyme (protein) produced by the kidney, and found in the urine. There are two
forms of urokinase which differ in molecular weight but have similar clinical
Treatment with urokinase demonstrated more improvement on:
Angikinase is the low
molecular weight form.
Angikinase acts on the endogenous fibrinolytic system. It converts
plasminogen to the enzyme plasmin. Plasmin degrades fibrin clots as well as
fibrinogen and some other plasma proteins.
the pharmacokinetic properties in man is limited. Urokinase administered by
intravenous infusion is rapidly cleared by the liver with an elimination
half-life for biologic activity of 12.6 + /- 6.2 minutes and a distribution
volume of 11.5 L. Small fractions of the administered dose are excreted in bile
Although the pharmacokinetics of exogenously administered urokinase have not
been characterized in patients with hepatic impairment, endogenous
urokinase-type plasminogen activator plasma levels are elevated 2- to 4-fold in
patients with moderate to severe cirrhosis. Thus, reduced urokinase clearance in
patients with hepatic impairment might be expected.
Angikinase in doses
recommended for lysis of pulmonary embolism is followed by increased
fibrinolytic activity in the circulation. This effect disappears within a few
hours after discontinuation, but a decrease in plasma levels of fibrinogen and
plasminogen and an increase in the amount of circulating fibrin and fibrinogen
degradation products may persist for 12-24 hours. There is a lack of
correlation between embolus resolution and changes in coagulation and
fibrinolytic assay results.
- Pulmonary angiography
- Lung perfusion scanning
Measurements within 24 hours than did
treatment with heparin. Lung perfusion
scanning showed no significant
treatment-associated difference by day 7.
Information based on patients treated with
fibrinolytic for pulmonary embolus suggests
that improvement in angiographic and lung
perfusion scans is lessened when treatment
is instituted more than several days (e.g.,
4 to 6 days) after onset.
Indications and usages:
Angikinase is indicated in adults:
- For the lysis of acute massive pulmonary
emboli, defined as obstruction of blood flow
to a lobe or multiple segments.
- For the lysis of pulmonary emboli
accompanied by unstable hemodynamics, i.e.,
failure to maintain blood pressure without
The diagnosis should be confirmed by
objective means, such as pulmonary
angiography or non-invasive procedures such
as lung scanning.
Sedonase is contraindicated in the
situations listed below:
The use of Angikinase is
contraindicated in patients with a history
of hypersensitivity to the product.
Because thrombolytic therapy increases the
risk of bleeding.
- Recent (e.g., within two months) cerebrovasular accident
- Active internal bleeding
- Recent (e.g., within two months) intracranial or intraspinal surgery
- Recent trauma including cardiopulmonary
- Intracranial neoplasm, arteriovenous malformation, or aneurysm
- Known bleeding diatheses
- Severe uncontrolled arterial hypertension
In the following conditions, the risk of
bleeding may be increased and should be
weighed against the anticipated benefits:
The risk of serious bleeding is increased
with use of Angikinase. Fatalities due to
hemorrhage, including intracranial and
retroperitoneal, have been reported in
association with urokinase therapy.
Concurrent administration of Angikinase with
other thrombolytic agents, anticoagulants,
or agents inhibiting platelet function may
further increase the risk of serious
Angikinase therapy requires careful
attention to all potential bleeding sites
(including catheter insertion sites,
arterial and venous puncture sites, cut down
sites, and other needle puncture sites).
Intramuscular injections and nonessential
handling of the patient must be avoided
during treatment with Angikinase.
Venipunctures should be performed as
infrequently as possible and with care to
Should an arterial puncture be necessary,
upper extremity vessels are preferable.
Direct pressure should be applied for at
least 30 minutes, a pressure dressing
applied, and the puncture site checked
frequently for evidence of bleeding.
Any other condition in which bleeding might
constitute a significant hazard or be
particularly difficult to manage because of
- Recent (within 10 days) major surgery, obstetrical delivery, organ biopsy, previous puncture of non-compressible vessels.
- Recent (within 10 days) serious gastrointestinal bleeding.
- High likelihood of a left heart thrombus, for example, mitral stenosis with arterial
- Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
- Haemostatic defects including those secondary to severe hepatic or renal disease.
- Cerebrovasular disease.
- Diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy
When internal bleeding occurs, it may be
more difficult to manage than that which
occurs with conventional anticoagulant
therapy. Should potentially serious
spontaneous bleeding (not controllable by
direct pressure) occur, the infusion of
Angikinase should be terminated immediately,
and measures to manage the bleeding
implemented. Serious blood loss may be
managed with volume replacement, including
packed red blood cells.
Dextran should not be used. When
appropriate, fresh frozen plasma and/or
cryoprecipitate may be considered to reverse
the bleeding tendency.
Anaphylaxis and Other Infusion Reactions:
Post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity
reactions have included:
- Anaphylaxis (with rare reports of fatal
- Orolingual edema
There have also been reports of other
infusion reactions which have included one
or more of the following:
- Fever and/or chills/rigors
- Vomiting & Nausea
generally occurred within one hour of
beginning Angikinase infusion. Patients who
exhibit reactions should be closely
monitored and appropriate therapy
Infusion reactions generally respond to
discontinuation of the infusion and/or
administration of intravenous
antihistamines, corticosteroids, or
Antipyretics which inhibit platelet function
(aspirin and other non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory agents) may increase the
risk of bleeding and should not be used for
treatment of fever.
Clinical features of cholesterol
embolism may include:
Cholesterol embolism has
been reported rarely in patients treated
with all types of thrombolytic agents; the
true incidence is unknown. This serious
condition, which can be lethal, is also
associated with invasive vascular procedures
(e.g., cardiac catheterization, angiography,
vascular surgery) and/or anticoagulant
- Myocardial infarction
- Cerebral infarction
- Acute renal failure
- Spinal cord infarction
- Gangrenous digits
- Retinal artery occlusion
- Bowel infarction
reticularis (bluish-black patch of
discolored skin) "Purple Toe"